Thursday, May 21, 2020

What Is a Buffer and How Does It Work

The use of buffers is an important concept in acid-base chemistry. Heres a look at what buffers are and how they function. What Is a Buffer? There are two key terms associated with buffers. A buffer is an aqueous solution that has a highly stable pH. A buffering agent is a weak acid or weak base that helps maintain the pH of an aqueous solution after adding another acid or base. If you add an acid or a base to a buffered solution, its pH will not change significantly. Similarly, adding water to a buffer or allowing water to evaporate will not change the pH of a buffer. How Do You Make a Buffer? A buffer is made by mixing a large volume of a weak acid or weak base together with its conjugate. A weak acid and its conjugate base can remain in solution without neutralizing each other. The same is true for a weak base and its conjugate acid. How Do Buffers Work? When hydrogen ions are added to a buffer, they will be neutralized by the base in the buffer. Hydroxide ions will be neutralized by the acid. These neutralization reactions will not have much effect on the overall pH of the buffer solution. When you select an acid for a buffer solution, choose an acid that has a pKa close to your desired pH. This will give your buffer nearly equivalent amounts of acid and conjugate base so it will be able to neutralize as much H and OH- as possible. Sources Atkins, Peter; Jones, Loretta (2005). Chemical Principles: The Quest for Insight (3rd ed.). New York: Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-5701-X.Harris, Daniel C. (2003). Quantitative Chemical Analysis (6th ed.). New York: Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-4464-3.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Rational Way Of Life - 843 Words

The Rational Way of Life Epictetus’ Stoic Recommendation of Freedom Freedom is an arbitrary concept that has been and will always be limited. The notion of freedom is possible among equals, however, equality itself is universally different. Arendt, a political theorist, believes political freedom manifests through action, her reliance on the ability to act implies that humans can tangibly live freely. Epictetus on the other hand, believes that all humans can be internally free if they had a stoic mindset in their way of life. He believes that human beings are in complete control of their happiness and should only worry about what they can control instead of what they cannot. The revolutionary treasure is the original spirit of individual freedom that has been lost through the principles of public freedom and public happiness. Freedom as Epictetus defines is an internal condition that only we ourselves possess control over, his stoic recommendation offers a simple yet rational approach of living life freely. Public opinion suffocates the original spirit of the revolutionary treasure because public opinion provokes a common opposition, thus killing true personal opinions of American citizens. Arendt states that the Founding Fathers of America equated law based on public opinion with tyranny; in this sense, democracy was to them a new form of despotism. â€Å"Paradoxical as it may sound, it was in fact under the impact of the Revolution that the revolutionary spirit in AmericaShow MoreRelated Kants Humanity Formula Essay1646 Words   |  7 Pagesconfirmed by the dignity and worth of the rational agency of each person. Since human beings are the only rational beings capable of decision making and reasonable judgement, humanity must be valued. 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Subculture Electro House Raver Free Essays

The hallway is dark and all you hear are melodic beats getting steadily louder growing with your anticipation as you walk closer to the entrance. The hallway opens up to a huge warehouse stuffed with ravers. Strobe lights blind you at first but their inviting energy gets you in the mood. We will write a custom essay sample on Subculture: Electro House Raver or any similar topic only for you Order Now Up front is a DJ mixing continuous beats making the floor pulsate. All of your senses are heightened giving everything movement and energy. Electro House is more than just a genre of music. This genre has formed into a subculture because of its enormous following, lifestyle, and roots. The electro house music lifestyle grabs hold of mostly youth. However race, gender, and socioeconomic status is all ranges. A younger crowd is drawn to this genre because of the fun party scene involved and the care free attitude the genre evokes. The electro house genre became more than just music in the 2000’s. Popular DJ’s became the main draw for clubs. Typically this kind of party is called a rave. A rave describes the atmosphere which is dark, has strobe lights and sometimes accompanied by a projection of images to go along with the music. Ravers are the people who go to raves. This is the person who evokes the house music lifestyle. Typically a raver is young, dresses fashionably, and sometimes likes the drugs ecstasy, cocaine, and or MDMA. Raves can be known for their drug consumption but not all ravers are like this. An experienced raver usually brings or wears something that glows. If a raver brings glow sticks this allows an opportunity to dance with one in each hand, this is very popular while listening to electro house music. The fast paced music allows the ravers to dance rhythmically and can be compared to tribal like movements. In every day slang electro house is called electro. Jargon is also used to describe different kinds of electro house music. A bootleg is a remix made by a DJ who doesn’t have the official legal rights or permission to make the remix. These kinds of remixes are common and are done by every DJ. Mashups are similar and involve a producer taking elements from different tracks and putting them together to make a new one. White labels are twelve inch vinyls released for test pressing containing the bootleg tracks or remixes. Ravers also have a slew of jargon when talking about ecstasy. Mostly the terms E, X, or rolls are used and when on the drug most refer to it as â€Å"rollin†. To understand the subculture of electro house the history of house music needs to be established. House music in its first form was disco. The history of house music starts back in 1977 when â€Å"Saturday Night Fever† came out. â€Å"Saturday Night Fever† was an instant hit and a surge of young americans went to disco clubs. Disco at this time was a blend of 70’s funk, soul music, and rock. Most of the disco scene was in New York until 1979 when it spread to underground warehouses in Chicago and Detroit. The creation of house music was an attempt to get listeners hooked. So Chicago and Detroit DJs decided to introduce new techniques in the way disco was being presented. This combined with its separation from New York disco helped it evolve into its own genre. House music became known as more edgier, raw, and incorporated more diverse sounds. Electric keyboards, beat boxers, as well as beat machines helped to refine it into what it is today. Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, and Iowa still have one of the largest house scenes to this day. Plenty of sub-genres of house music has formed since the 1970’s. There is acid house music, latin house, disco house, hard house, funky house, chicago house, NRG house, tech house, New York house, and the largest electro house. Electro house grew from house music and has shown its superiority since 2000. Electro house music differentiates from house music with its four to the floor beats, analogue basslines, high pitched leads, usually accompanied by a piano or string riff. The electro house tempo ranges from 120-130 bpm. The word electro comes from the 1980’s electro movement by which it was influenced. After the 1980’s synth pop sound came the electroclash movement of the early 2000’s. This is where electro house was born, particularly from the Detroit techno scene. The electro house genre has become steadily more popular on the Billboard Top 100. The mainstream electro house songs usually feature a remix of a slower original song like Kid Cudi, â€Å"Pursuit of Happiness† later remixed by Steve Aoki to become an electro house anthem. Other notable electro house DJ’s are Benny Benassi, Daft Punk, Crookers, David Guetta, Deadmau5, Justice, Klaas, MSTRKRFT, Spencer Hill, and The Bloody Beatroots. Electro house music’s popularity has been on the rise since 2000. You tube has allowed this genre to spread because unknown DJ’s know have an effective platform to showcase their talents. Electro house ravers have a belief system similar to the disco era. Both groups of young adults want to escape their problems and live in the present. Their intertwining beliefs stem from house evolving from disco. Electro house makes it their own by taking it to a level of embracing who you are. An electro house raver isn’t easy to define because they embrace who they want to be. When you walk into a rave you will see some people dressed in halloween type costumes such as angel wings and bright neons or others in regular street clothing. You don’t have to wear a particular type of outfit to fit in. Electro house lovers value this because it’s about the music. The drug ecstasy is widely embraced for this reason. It always the raver to unwind and leave behind their troubles. Disco in the 70’s and electro house of today both allow an escape for their generation. This is also why electro house has such a wide range of youth followers. There’s no pressure to be rich or be a certain race. Where ever you are from and what ever you do electro house will embrace you. How to cite Subculture: Electro House Raver, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Product Attributes Essays - Skin Care, Toiletry, Brand Management

Product Attributes The Brand/Product: 1.Attributes: The attributes are the product's primary characteristics, both physical and functional. They are what the consumer might recognize first about the product through the five senses. The physical attributes are what make the product what it is. They are scent, texture, package, contents, variety and price. The functional attributes are shown by how the products work. They include sun protection, moisture for the skin and an attractive promotion. 2. Benefits: Benefits are what the actual product attributes can do for the consumer. It is important to make these benefits different from the competition's. Each physical attribute possesses certain benefits that satisfy the consumers wants. The scent of our product is what makes our lotion so different. None of our competition brands have a scented sun tan lotion on the market that is targeted at our segment; the only other is Coppertone Kids' varieties (5). Our lotion comes in a very appealing scent that makes the consumer feel comfortable and excited about putting sun tan lotion on their bodies. There is no overbearing or strong oily scent like some lotions, and there is no fake odor like the "coconut" tanning oils that are on the market today (1). All of this was taken into consideration when we came out with our light, refreshing and mild- scented fragrance called "Summer Rain." All of our varieties of lotion will be in this scent because it is one that can be appealing to all different types of people, not just our target market. The texture is non-oily and does not feel too heavy on the skin. This is important because when people use our product, they will be pleased that they do not have to worry about clogs pores that may lead to acne. It also leaves the skin feeling healthier because of the natural moisturizers. Our lotion comes in three different varieties for different skin types. We have lotion for normal skin, dry skin, and oily skin. Each lotion has certain amounts of Vitamin E, aloe and vera and other moisturizers so that the skin will "always return to its natural balance" as it is used (4). The contents of our product are always organic and pure. We use only the finest and botanical ingredients, all carefully tested for purity and effectiveness. (4) This makes the product safer to use for the consumer and for the earth. It is clean and refreshing, not oily and irritating. Plus, we keep in mind the earth and all creatures by never testing on any animal. This is important with the current market trend of products that are pure, safe, and friendly to animals. (4) The package is also another factor that defines Herbal Essence. The clear bottles allow the consumer to see the purity of this product. This feature also allows brand loyal customers to easily identify our product by its signature clear bottle. Sun protection is a big issue today with the wide spread fear of skin cancer. Our lotions include the ingredients needed to protect the sun's UV rays (2). Each SPF is recommended by the FDA for certain skins and how they burn or tan. For example, our SPF of 4 is for those who do not burn much and tan quite easily (3). The SPF's offered are 4, 8, 15, 30 and 45. The price of our product allows an affordable and competitive way to protect the skin and, but without sacrificing quality or quantity. The sun tan lotions on the market today have a price trend of between $3.79 to $11.99 (1). We offer our lotion in two sizes: 4oz and 8 oz, which should retail for $5.19 and $7.95 respectfully. We feel comfortable with these prices because we place our selves around the middle of the pack, but we do not want to be identified as a "cheap" brand. We want our customers to know that they are buying a high quality product. The last important benefit or our product is its great variety. We offer three textures for different skin types, five different SPF's, in two sizes. This gives our customers great selection in how they want their skin to be protected. 3. The Most Levergable Benefits and Attributes Versus The Competition: ? Scent- Herbal Essence is known for their extra refreshing botanical fragrances more than any other brand. ? Organic and pure contents- The consumers now want safer products for the environment. Our competition does not offer organic products. ? Variety- The consumer has a great selection in texture, protection, and

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Free Essays on Canadian Advertising

and the French translation subtitled on the sign. In Montrà ©al, it’s generally the opposite; signs are in French with the English translation. This is generally harder for marketers in Canada because they not only have to advertise in English, but also in French. And also they have to research and are able to come up with an advertisement that will target the French as well. In the US, marketers generally only market to English speaking Americans. Canadians also are very preservative p... Free Essays on Canadian Advertising Free Essays on Canadian Advertising Canadian Advertising Differences Canada is a very preservative country. They are very serious with a lot of the things they do. Also Canada has a very strong economy. Currently Canada’s GDP per Capita is around 30,000 Canadian Dollars which falls in second right under the United States. About 40% of the Canadian population is of British descent, while 27% are of French origin. Another 20% are of other European background, about 10% are of E or SE Asian origin, and some 3% are of aboriginal or Mà ©tis (mixed aboriginal and European) background. In the late 1990s, Canada had the highest immigration rate of any country in the world, with more than half the total coming from Asia. Over 75% of the total population lives in cities. Canada has complete religious liberty, though its growing multiculturalism has at times caused tensions among ethnic and religious groups. About 45% of the people are Roman Catholics, while some 40% are Protestant. English and French are the official languages, and federal document s are published in both languages. In 1991, about 61% of Canadians cited English as their mother tongue, while 24% cited French. No when it comes to advertising Canada has it a lot harder than the US. Although Canada’s majority language is English, there is a high French speaking population, especially in Quebec. The majority of the population in Quebec is French. Business and other signs and billboards usually have the English words and the French translation subtitled on the sign. In Montrà ©al, it’s generally the opposite; signs are in French with the English translation. This is generally harder for marketers in Canada because they not only have to advertise in English, but also in French. And also they have to research and are able to come up with an advertisement that will target the French as well. In the US, marketers generally only market to English speaking Americans. Canadians also are very preservative p...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Tips for Working on a College Group Project

Tips for Working on a College Group Project Group projects in college can be great experiences or nightmares. From other people not carrying their weight to waiting to the last minute, group projects can quickly turn into an unnecessarily large and ugly problem. By following the basic tips below, however, you can work to ensure that your group project leads to a great grade instead of a massive headache. Set Roles and Goals Early It may seem silly and basic, but setting roles and goals early will help out immensely as the project progresses. Specify who is doing what (research? writing? presenting?), with as much detail as possible and with dates and deadlines when appropriate. After all, knowing that one of your group members is going to complete part of the papers research wont do any good if he completes it after the project due date. Allow a Time Cushion at the End of Your Schedule Lets say the project is due on the 10th of the month. Aim to have everything done by the 5th or the 7th, just to be safe. After all, life happens: people get sick, files get lost, group members flake. Allowing for a little cushion will help prevent major stress (and a possible catastrophe) on the actual due date. Arrange for Periodic Check-ins and Updates You may be working your you-know-what off to finish your part of the project, but not everyone may be as diligent. Arrange to meet as a group every other week to update each other, discuss how the project is going, or even just work on things together. This way, everyone will know the group, as a whole, is on track before it becomes too late to fix the problem. Allow Time for Someone to Check the Final Project With so many people working on a project, things can often seem disconnected or confusing. Check in with a campus writing center, another group, your professor, or anyone else who may be helpful to review your final project before you turn it in. An extra set of eyes can be invaluable for a big project that will have an impact on so many peoples grades. Talk to Your Professor if Someone isnt Pitching In One negative aspect of doing group projects is the possibility that one member (or more!) is not pitching in to help the rest of the group. Although you may feel awkward about doing so, know that its OK to check in with your professor about whats happening (or not happening). You can do this midway through the project or at the end. Most professors will want to know and, if you check in midway through the project, they might be able to give you some advice about how to move forward.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Aids and hiv Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Aids and hiv - Essay Example HIV infection occurs by the person to person transfer of semen, blood vaginal discharge, pre-semen or breast milk. Major sources of disease transmission are unsafe sex, used needles, breast milk and transmission from mother to baby at birth (Weiss, 1993) (Douek et. al., 2009). Governments and pharmaceutical companies around the world are taking measures to fight against HIV infection. We will specifically emphasize on the role of government & pharmaceutical companies in African countries towards prevention and eradication of HIV/AIDS from masses. Heavy health budgets, quality of life and growth of economy are few of many factors that push governments around the world to invest and legislate to fight against spread of HIV infection. Corporate responsibility, social welfare and philanthropic programs are some of the incentives that drive pharmaceutical companies to push for comprehensive AIDS prevention agenda. Government & pharmaceutical companies use legislation, research grants, dru g control, awareness campaigns and enforcement strategies as tools to counter the spread of AIDS. Pharmaceutical companies and government agencies in developed world are very efficient at promoting the understanding of drug use that leads to HIV infection. Research is being done into how social behaviors promote drug-use that eventually helps in spreading AIDS due to bodily fluid transfer (Williams et. al., 2000). African countries on the other hand generally lack pro-active approach in terms of educating masses regarding the spread of HIV infection. While there are success stories in Africa that include â€Å"The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria†, â€Å"The United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief† (PEPFAR), Senegal and Uganda governmental initiatives to fight AIDS, there are also problems faced in countering the spread of AIDS. These problems include Prevalent corruption in governmental regulatory bodies Lack of political will in most of African leadership Social taboos and norms Lack of institutions and infrastructure Pharmaceutical companies trying to gain profits rather than penetration in African market With lesser amount of money and resources put into fight against AIDS due to factors stated above, a general lack of awareness prevails in most Africa nations. South African health minister, an ardent proponent of alternative medicine therapy for AIDS has been able to convince his followers into avoiding anti-retroviral drugs (an accepted primary source of AIDS treatment). Instead people lacking awareness regarding the treatment of the disease were lured to the false claims of using improved diet, or cheap generic vitamin pills as a simple and relatively inexpensive way to marginally delay the need to start HIV medication. A detailed study by Ben Goldacre, published in his book in 2009, reads out the following lines â€Å"†¦ Alternative therapists like to suggest that their treatments and ideas have not been sufficiently researched. †¦ research had indeed been done, with results that were far from promising.† (Goldacre, 2009, pp.187 – 188) Among the success stories, driven by governmental steps to eradicate the causes of HIV infection, the most noteworthy are the steps taken by Senegal and Uganda governments (UNAIDS, 1999). These include Problems regarding AIDS infection were recognized at promptly. Adequate funding was provided to fight HIV/AIDS. Difficult political decisions were taken to cater for